Is the way you tell your readers that certain material in your work came from another source. It also gives your readers the information necessary to find that source again, including:
Is an essential part of academic writing. Its purpose is to acknowledge the original source of ideas and work that is not the author’s own, and to point the reader to the original documents so that they can determine independently whether the attributed sources support the author’s argument as written.
Whenever you use quotes
Whenever you paraphrase
Whenever you use an idea that someone else has already expressed
Whenever you make specific reference to the work of another
Whenever someone else’s work has been critical in developing your own ideas
Here is a list of online reference managers that you can use to gather, manage, store and share all types of information, as well as generate citations and bibliographies.
EndNote Web (Basic) (online registration is necessary)
RefWorks (online registration is necessary)
Citavi (free download)
Citation Machine is a free site that automatically produces MLA, APA, Turabian or Chicago style citations for a variety of sources (but not bibliographies). Users can copy and paste citations into Word. It was developed by David Warlick, an educator.
KnightCite is a free site that automatically produce MLA, APA, or Chicago style citations for 25 types of sources with availability to register & save citations. From the Hekman Library at Calvin College.
The APA Wizard and The MLA Wizard
This free site automatically produces MLA or APA style citations for 6 basic types of sources. There is excellent help on each screen to walk users through the processing of citing a source.
This generator will reference tweets just paste the tweet URL and it will convert it into an APA or MLA citation.
EbscoHost databases provide its users with ability to get the full citation according to all citation styles for the item being viewed:
2. Choose the required citation format & then copy & paste it to Microsoft Word or export it using any reference manager
A reference made in the text to a source of information. This can be in the form of a direct quotation, summarising or paraphrasing.
An organised listing of the works cited in the text, placed at the end of the document.
A full listing of all material consulted in relation to the research, including any source material not directly cited in the text, placed at the end of the document.
To respect the copyrights of the writer from whom you have borowed your ideas
To make your writing more persuasive
To allow other users to trace the sources of information you have used
To validate your arguments
To help preventing plagiarism
There are different forms of citation styles. Many disciplines tend to use one specific style; for example, APA style is used in psychology.
Disciplines in science & technology use a variety of style manuals.
Your instructor should inform you with the preferred citation style before you start your research.
If you aren't required to use a certain style, use one that you are comfortable with and that best fits your needs. Just follow the guidelines and be consistent.
The following web sites offer information for students who have a research paper to write, but are not sure where to start:
To navigate the available literature around your topic you need to start with a relevant article or author, then work backward or forward. Ask yourself:
What is DOI?
A digital object identifier (DOI) is a unique alphanumeric string assigned by a registration agency (the International DOI Foundation) to identify content and provide a persistent link to its location on the Internet. The publisher assigns a DOI when your article is published and made available electronically.
All DOI numbers begin with a 10 and contain a prefix and a suffix separated by a slash. The prefix is a unique number of four or more digits assigned to organizations; the suffix is assigned by the publisher and was designed to be flexible with publisher identification standards.
Where to find the DOI information for articles in Our databases:
If you have a DOI and need to find the article information, you can type or paste the DOI into the search box and click Go. Your browser will take you to the publishers web page associated with that DOI.